miércoles, noviembre 15, 2006

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Taoismo Su fundador, Lao-tse nace en el siglo VI A.C.. Ocupa un puesto importante en la corte del emperador, pero al contemplar tanta corrupción decide organizar un viaje al lejano Oeste. En su libro, "Tao-te-King", propone un camino de salvación muy distinto al de Confucio. Su doctrina se acerca al hinduismo. Dice que lo importante es alejarse de todo lo sensorial y caminar hacia lo puro, el Tao. El Tao es el origen del cielo y la tierra, de quienes surgen todas las cosas, es quien regula el Yang-Yin. Es el modelo de comportamiento de todos los hombres y el principio de toda actividad justa en lo político y lo social. Para imitar al Tao hay que tener paciencia, ser sencillos y sin pretensiones. Hay que llegar a no hacer nada para poder hacerlo todo. Hay que evitar las tensiones, se desea llegar a una quietud mística. Las tres virtudes fundame


ntales del taoísmo: Paz, tranquilidad y silencio. Su modelo es la naturaleza es un buen modelo para el hombre, ella no prolonga indefinidamente la tormenta o el huracán. Esta metafísica de la no acción contribuyó a fomentar en el pueblo toda clase de supersticiones y magias, buscando ansiosamente el elixir de la vida. En la actualidad el toísmo se encuentra en decadencia, casi extinto. Tao "El tao que puede expresarse con palabras no es el tao permanente. El nombre que puede ser nombrado no es el nombre permanente", es decir: "Del Tao se puede hablar, pero no del Tao eterno. Pueden nombrarse los nombres, pero no el Nombre eterno". Es esta la primera enseñanza de Lao zi contenida en el Tao te ching, libro canónico del taoísmo filosófico. He apelado a dos traducciones distintas del texto original chino para dejar más allá de toda duda que el propio Lao zi descree de todo intento de dar una definición del tao. ¿De que hablamos entonces, cuando hablamos del tao? ¿Y porque llamarle "tao" si no es su verdadero nombre ? Hay una cosa confusamente formada, anterior al cielo y a la tierra. ¡Sin sonido, sin forma! de nada depende y permanece inalterada, se la puede considerar el origen del mundo.

Yo no conozco su nombre, lo denomino tao. Forzado a darle otro nombre lo llamaría lo grande. O en otras palabras: Había Algo indefinido pero completo en sí mismo, nacido antes del Cielo-y-Tierra. Silencioso e ilimitado, único e inmutable, aunque impregnándolo todo sin excepción, puede considerarse como la Madre del mundo. No conozco su nombre; lo denomino "Tao"; y, a falta de mejor palabra, lo llamo "Lo Grande". Como puede apreciarse el tao reúne muchos de los atributos que suelen predicarse de Dios: es en si mismo la razón de su existencia, es infinito y eterno, es trascendente y omnipresente, y origen y destino de todos los seres. Pero el tao siendo razón y ley de la evolución cósmica hace su obra infinita sin salir de su perfecta quietud. Su condición de inmutable y su trabajo silencioso lo califican como muy distinto del Dios personal y providente a que estamos acostumbrados.Semejante Dios patriarcal, concebido de diversas formas por la religiones teístas de occidente y medio oriente, es ajeno al pensamiento filosófico taoísta. El resto de la grandes escuelas filosóficas chinas (Confucio, Mo Di, Mencio) han dado al concepto de dios un lugar central en sus doctrinas, con el nombre de Di o Tian, pero las escasísimas veces que lo mencionan los maestros taoístas Lao zi y Zhuang zi

ubican a este concepto en una jerarquía subordinada al tao. ¿El tao es lo Absoluto? En su afán de conocer el sentido del universo y el de su propia existencia, el hombre no ha encontrado sosiego hasta hallar una idea que le permita deneter su pensamiento y no le demande ninguna pregunta ulterior acerca de su origen: algo que tenga en si mismo la razón plena de su ser y de todo cuanto de él se derive. En occidente, ninguno de los grandes filósofos ha sido ajeno a esta búsqueda de lo Absoluto, pero el compromiso intelectual con el rigorismo lógico impone al pensamiento occidental un límite infranqueable. Después de arribar, de la mano de la propia lógica, a conclusiones tales como que "el Ser puro sin más determinación, es el vacío, la mera indeterminación, la Nada" y que por tanto "el Ser puro y la Nada pura son lo mismo", la más de las veces no se han extraído de ello las enseñanzas correspondientes, y se ha optado por minimizar su real significación. Pero para la cosmovisión taoísta la identidad del Ser y la Nada como diferentes aspectos de lo Absoluto, es de importancia crucial, porque nos obliga a concluir que el pensamiento lógico y el filosofar discursivo encuentra aquí su límite, y que cualquier aproximación a lo Absoluto deberá prescindir de la guía de la lógica. Siendo la referencia al tao, la referencia a lo Absoluto, se comprende porque Lao zi descree de la posibilidad de definirlo, o como brillantemente lo ha apuntado Toshihiko Izutsu en su tesis "Sufismo y taoísmo": Decir que el Tao o lo Absoluto en su absolutidad no tiene nombre, que no admite "nombre" alguno, es decir que transciende cualquier comprensión lingüística , lo que equivale a decir que el Tao está fuera del alcance del pensamiento y de la recepción de los sentidos. La naturaleza del Tao es tal que la Razón no puede concebirla, ni los sentidos percibirla. En otras palabras, es un Transcendente absoluto. Los aspectos del Tao: Ser y No-ser Deberemos recordarlo insesantemente: las referencias al Tao han de ser siempre paradojales, contradictorias.

No hay modo de significar lo absoluto sin forzar el lenguaje hasta enfrentarlo con la lógica. Ya hemos reconocido que, si despojamos a la realidad fenoménica -al ser- de todas sus determinaciones, con el propósito de llegar a la idea del ser puro, del Ser con mayúcula, terminaremos por toparnos con más absoluta indeterminación: la Nada. Surge entonces la prengunta: ¿Es el Tao la no-existencia que conceptualiza la metafísica de occidente como la Nada? Ya podría anticipar a esta pregunta una respuesta negativa, pero una exacta comprensión de la cuestión requiere profundizar en la significación que tienen los caracteres Wu y You en chino y, más especificamente, en el contexto del Tao te ching. El doctor José Ramón Alvarez, de la Universidad de Fujen, Taipei, Taiwan, explica esto con suma claridad: "Encontramos aquí dos conceptos claves en el taoísmo: el Wu y el You. A la hora de traducirlos se presenta un problema, porque los términos No-ser y Ser, que ordinariamente se usan, se presentan a equívocos, ya que su estructura metafísica no coincide con los conceptos de Ser y No ser (Nada) de las filosofías occidentales. Wu y You no se niegan, sino que se complementan. Entre You y Wu no existe prioridad ontológica, y Wu no es la carencia de You. Wu y You no son más que dos aspectos metafísicos del Tao. You (Ser) representa el aspecto del Tao en cuanto principio del mundo fenoménico y como tal es el comienzo y vida de todos los seres, es la madre de todo el universo. Desde el punto de vista del You conocemos las apariencias,


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las manifestaciones de lo real, lo fenoménico en cuanto fenoménico. Wu (No-ser) representa el aspecto del Tao en cuanto origen y fundamento oculto de todo lo real, que se manifiesta en lo fenoménico. Desde el punto de vista del Wu conocemos las maravillas de la realidad, la esencia, lo no fenoménico de lo fenoménico. Pero, You y Wu no son dos principios distintos ni opuestos, sino que tienen el mismo origen y son solo dos nombres distintos de una misma y unica realidad: el Tao." De la cita efectuada surgen dos precisiones. Por una parte, lo que el pensamiento taoísta conceptualiza como No-ser (Wu), no es la Nada, entendida como no existencia. Hablamos de No-ser por cuanto está más alla de cualquier determinación particular del Ser, y porque, precisamente por ello, se torna insondable para el pensamiento lógico. Sólo en ese restringido sentido de no poder ser imaginado o lógicamente conceptualizable, el No-ser, como aspecto del Tao, se podría identificar figurativamente con la Nada. Por otra parte, el doctor Alvarez da su interpretación en el sentido de que el Tao es abarcativo del Ser (You) y del No ser (Wu), porque ambos sólo son aspectos diferentes del Tao. Afirmar esta identidad del Tao con Wu y You, es tomar una posición particular dentro de la crítica taoístas. Otros comentaristas del Tao te ching, como bien lo recuerda el profesor José Ignacio Preciado Ydoeta, han deducido la identidad del Tao solamente con el Wu, negándole la doble naturaleza (tal el caso de Yang Rong-guo).


Pero coincidente con la postura del Dr. Alvarez, el Profesor Preciado Ydoeta, escribe, en referencia al pensamiento del filósofo contemporáneo profesor Ren Ji-yu: ".... el dao [tao] es wu ming (no tiene nombre) y wu xing (no tiene forma); lo que tiene forma (you xing) y por tanto puede tener un nombre (you ming) son las cosas concretas limitadas. El dao, aunque sin forma y sin nombre, es la raíz de todas las cosas con forma y con nombre. Por eso dice [Ren] que el dao también es you" Introduciéndonos en la cosmovisión taoísta En toda la extensión de la obra taoísta se hace referencia al tao con variadas denominaciones. Ello puede parecernos contradictorio, por cuanto, al iniciar nuestro discurso sobre el tao lo calificamos como innombrable, pero, precisamente por ser lo Innombrable, ninguna etiqueta particular lo abarca, y se hace necesario recurrir a distintos apelativos para significar los apectos diferentes de su naturaleza. Con ello no se supera la dificultad apuntada al comienzo, pero, admitiendo la polisemia básica del discurso taoísta, y no esperando que los términos empleados sean portadores de significados conceptuales rígidos, se puede avanzar en la aproximación comprensiva de la cosmovisión taoísta. No debe perderse de vista, que textos como el Tao te ching se hallan inspirados en experiencias extáticas y no son el resultado de un esfuerzo especulativo deliberado. Por tanto, en tal contexto, las palabras tienen como función primordial testimoniar lo experimentado y, solo secudariamente comunicar algo mentado. Y es en este sentido que los diferentes términos empleados para testimoniar la vivencia interior del tao, no son un mero recurso expresivo, no son sinónimos, sino que cada uno apunta a una dimensión significativa distinta. Esta constelación semántico metafísica, hilvanada sistemáticamente,


es la que permite hablar de una cosmovisión taoísta. Si esta cosmovisión implica en algun sentido una referencia al origen y evolución del universo -desde una perspectiva cosmológica, temporal-, o si sólo debe ser concebida como de alcance puramente metafísico -desde una perspectiva ontológica, atemporal-, no debiera esto constituirse en asunto polémico. En mi opinión, en la cosmovisión taoísta hay indiscutibles referencias a la temporalidad que dejan entrever una vocacion cosmológica; de igual manera que, al hablar de la realidad del tao en su identidad con lo Absoluto, debe hacerselo desde lo supratemporal, en sentido metafísico. Es por esto que, sin entrar en esta polémica por ahora, pasaremos a referirnos a la constelacion de conceptos que conforman el núcleo de la cosmovisión taoista. El tao primigenio:Misterio de misterios y Puerta de todas las maravillas En la cosmovisión metafísica taoísta se destacan tres aspectos primarios de lo Absoluto: xuan, wu y you. Ya hemos intentado explicar por qué se predica del tao el No-Ser (wu) y el Ser (you). Intentaremos ahora referirnos al aspecto más trascendente y fundamental del tao, al que no podemos acceder por la vía lógica, porque trasciende a la razón misma y no puede ser significado por el lenguaje: se le denomina xuan, misterio. Como bien lo observa Toshihiko Izutsu, se emplea la palabra xuan toda vez que Lao Zi se refiere al "Tao en su aspecto de Absoluto metafísico, incógnito e incognosible, más allá del Ser y del No-ser". Este es el punto de partida de la cosmovisión taoísta. Partimos del Misterio de los misterios, del aspecto primigenio del tao, del que nada podemos decir, e iremos avanzando hacia la existencia de todas las cosas que pueblan el universo


. Por que partiendo de El emergerán todas las cosas que pueblan el universo y el propio espacio-tiempo que lo contiene, Lao zi le llama "Chung miao zhi men",Puerta de todas las maravillas y "Xuan pin" Hembra misteriosa. El tao en su fase xuan es también el punto de retorno de toda especulación cosmológica. ¿Por qué afirmamos que el tao, en este estadio primordial, está por encima del Ser y del No-Ser?. Siguiendo a Zhuang zi admitimos que el Ser se origina en el No-ser, a partir de aquello que no admite ninguna determinación particular y que como tal, podemos calificarla como Nada ; luego el Ser, lo manifestado, lo determinado, es la negación de ese estado que calificamos como Nada; el Ser en su génesis es No-Nada. Pero concebir lo Absoluto, como Misterio de misterios, es ir más allá de estos conceptos duales, negandólos a ambos, superándolos: ¿cabe que hablemos, como lo haría Zhuang zi, de la No-No-Nada, o su equivalente el No-No-No-Ser? Es evidente que la conceptualización lógica no es la vía idónea para acceder al estadio primigenio del tao. acceder al estadio primigenio del tao. en mi opinion sobre el taoismo es que fue un movimiento muy importanteen el cual se tenian muchas creencias filosoficas misticas y fue muy confunduçido por el budismo. el taoismo es buscar el camino a la verdad y esta relacionado mucho con el yin yan para mi el taoismo es una creencia muy importante y respetable para los que los siguen pero a mi enrealidad no me gustaria practicar estas creencias y las respeto porque a todos nos guata que respeten nuestras opiniones,creencias y pensamientos.en el taoismo un hecho que me causo gran impacto es que muchas personas pensaron quelao-tse el creador del taoismo despues de que se fue de china se volvio el buda.




leidy herran

32 Comments:

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